Climate change is bringing increased uncertainty for rangeland management and sustainability. Atmospheric CO2 concentrations have been rising and warmer temperatures and more variable precipitation are predicted; all of which can have profound effects on rangeland ecology. To assess effects of changing climate on rangeland ecosystems, and to develop coherent adaptive management strategies, standardized assessment systems are needed to characterize soils, water, plants, animals, and productive capacities of landscapes. Economic and social systems and processes are inextricably linked with ecological systems and processes; therefore, data must be collected to clarify those linkages. These inter-relationships also must be considered in the development of effective management and mitigation strategies for changing climate. By incorporating monitoring into conservation, management and business plans, land owners and managers can improve their sustainable rangeland management.